The Montreal Protocol was signed in 1987 to combat ozone depletion. This international agreement has been an example of fruitful international cooperation. In this case, it is thought that the ozone layer could recover by 2050. After Rio, all major economic contracts began to incorporate environmental protection. The Marrakesh Agreement, which created the World Trade Organization in 1994 and was the first economic treaty to recognize the objectives of sustainable development and environmental protection, is an example of this. The 1995 Climate Convention deserves special mention, as its signatories met annually for the Conference of the Parties (COP). It was in this context that the Kyoto Protocol was presented in 1997. Although it was not possible to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, it was the first international agreement to set legally binding commitments for industrialized countries. Before the 1960s, there was little environmental awareness and few isolated international environmental regulatory initiatives. One of them was the failure of the London Convention of 1900, which was supposed to protect African wildlife. It never entered into force because it was not signed by the minimum number of parties. It was replaced 33 years later by the London Convention of 1933, implemented in much of colonized Africa through the creation of natural parks and species protection.
The Kyoto Protocol on combating climate change gave way to the Paris Agreement (2016). In this agreement, the signatory countries committed to do everything possible to prevent the average temperature of the planet from rising by 2°C above pre-industrial levels and, hopefully, from remaining below a rise of 1.5°C. The link between human rights and climate change was recognized in its preamble. Since it has been ratified by almost every country in the world, it has enormous potential as an instrument of international law. Indeed, the first judgment that prevented a project (the extension of an airport) was recently delivered in England on the grounds that another country would not respect the Paris Agreement. This recognition is also considered an important step in the creation of IEL, as it shows the emergence of civil society as an increasingly important and active actor in the protection of the environment at the global level. In 1992, two conventions were presented during this conference, which were to be signed by national governments: the Convention on Biological Diversity and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The Rio Declaration was also created, which reaffirmed the Stockholm Declaration and the Agenda 21 Agenda for Action, which continues to guide governments and non-state actors in environmental protection activities. . . .