Fort Laramie Agreement

Not only did the terms of the contract close Bozeman Road and promise the demolition of the fortresses, but they also guaranteed exclusive occupation of the vast reserves, including the Black Hills. White settlers were excluded from tribal hunts in adjacent « unborn » areas. It should be noted that the treaty stipulated that future land forfeiture was prohibited unless the agreement of 75 per cent of the men of the adult tribe was respected. It was a landslide victory for the tribes. In 1868, a new contract commission met at Fort Laramie. U.S. agents on the Board came up with a new federal policy that focused on putting all tribes on reserves. The Fort Laramie contract of 1868 founded the Great Sioux Reservation, which included the sacred black hills. (See map 2) Annuities (payments) of food and clothing must be delivered to Indians living on the reserve. The government has promised to close Bozeman Road and fortresses along the way. Under the agreement, the contract was to be signed by three-quarters (3/4 or 0.75 per cent) of the tribal males. Many Lakota Sioux groups have accepted the contract. Some of them were already living within the limits of the great Sioux reservation.

Others, such as Two Bears and his group, lived nearby and worked with the agents, even though they did not move to the reserve. From that day on, the war between the parties to this agreement will cease forever. The U.S. government wishes peace and its honour is assured of preserving it. The Indians want peace and now promise their honour to maintain it. Article 1 called for a cessation of hostilities and said, « Any war between the parties to this agreement will cease forever. » When crimes were committed by « bad men » among white settlers, the government agreed to arrest and punish the culprits and to reimburse all losses suffered by the victims. The tribes agreed to hand over the criminals, all the « bad men among the Indians, » to the government for trial and punishment, and to repay all losses suffered by the victims. [31] If a Sioux has committed « false or impure misconduct by the person or property of an Indian, a white, a black or an Indian, » the United States could pay damages against the tribes. [7]:998 These terms effectively abandoned the authority of the tribes to punish crimes committed against them by white settlers. [32]:37 It is expressly understood and agreed by and between the contracting parties concerned: that the implementation of this treaty and its ratification by the United States Senate have an effect and must be interpreted in such a way that all contracts and agreements reached so far between the parties concerned are cancelled and cancelled, to the extent that such treaties and agreements require the United States to provide and deliver money, clothing or other objects to these Indians and to gangs parties to this treaty. Due to the lack of food for Indian horses in the Fort Laramie area, the contract was negotiated and signed 30 miles downstream from the fortress at the mouth of Horse Creek. Many Indians have called the Treaty of Horse Creek.

Representatives from Lakota, Cheyenne, Assiniboine, Gros Ventre, Mandan, Arikara, Hidatsa, Shoshone, Crow and Arapaho participated in the contract negotiations. [7] The contract is divided into 17 items. She founded the Great Sioux Reservation, including the possession of the Black Hills, and set aside additional land as an « indecoupable Indian territory » in the regions of South Dakota, Wyoming and Nebraska and eventually Montana. [c] She stated that the U.S. government would have the power not only to punish white settlers who have committed crimes against tribes, but also tribal members who have committed crimes and who should be handed over to the government instead of being prosecuted in tribal courts.

Non classé